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Daylight and sunlight analysis

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BRE provide a full natural light assessment and analysis service, including planning light for new properties, rights to light and how to manage overshadowing.

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Access to daylight and sunlight is a vital part of a healthy environment. Sensitive design should provide sufficient daylight and sunlight to new housing while not obstructing light to existing homes nearby. We also take into account obstructions like trees and nearby reflective surfaces like glass buildings.

 

Our natural light services

We provide a full daylight and sunlight analysis service, including:

  • Provision of natural light to new properties

  • Potential losses to existing properties

  • Overshadowing

  • Effects of trees

  • Potential dazzle from buildings with reflective surfaces

  • Potential impacts on solar panels

  • Rights to Light

This usually involves:

  • A site visit to survey the existing buildings

  • Calculations of daylight and sunlight using our own computer software

  • A report provision or a chapter in an Environmental Statement, suitable for submission as part of a planning permission application.

BRE’s service covers the full range of buildings from domestic extensions to very large developments.

With our expert witness service we can give evidence at planning hearings and public inquiries.

Loss of light to existing buildings

Where a new development can block light to existing homes, daylight assessment for planning is usually based around the vertical sky component (VSC) within and without the new development. This a measure of the amount of diffuse daylight reaching a window.

If the layout of a property is known, the effect on the daylight distribution in the existing rooms can also be analysed.

Overshadowing, or loss of sunlight to existing premises, is analysed using annual probable sunlight hours (APSH). This is a measure of how much sunlight the window can receive with and without the new development.

We advise on how to design a development to reduce or avoid loss of light. For example, we can generate a ‘limiting envelope’, giving the maximum size of the development for loss of light to remain within the BRE guidelines. We can also assess overshading of solar panels on nearby buildings, or on the proposed development itself.

Daylight and sunlight to new developments

We evaluate the daylighting and sunlighting of new developments in line with the latest guidelines in BS EN 17037 ‘Daylight in buildings’ and the BRE Report “Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight: a guide to good practice”. Typical examples range from basement flats and windows in light wells, to high rise urban developments or conversions of commercial properties. For common residential developments, we assess daylighting by calculating room areas achieving a certain daylight factor target, a measure of the amount of daylight in the proposed room. However, we can also carry out more complex calculations using climate-based daylight modelling both for residential developments and for special applications like education buildings and museums, or to assess the performance of solar shading devices.

Where not enough daylight is provided, we can advise on changes to the design (providing extra windows, roof lights or light pipes, or changing room layout) to meet the guidelines.

If new housing is planned next to existing trees, we can use our specialist software to show whether enough daylight and sunlight is provided with the trees in place.

Full list of natural light services

Full list of natural light services

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We investigate whether existing or proposed open spaces are shaded by buildings. Here the BRE guidelines recommend that at least half of the garden or open space can receive at least two hours sunlight on 21 March. For larger developments, we can provide shadow plots showing the areas in shade at different times of day and year (transient overshadowing). We can also undertake specialist calculations of natural light for plant growth, for example grass in stadiums or plants in nature reserves or internal atriums.

Even if a development receives planning permission, neighbours can still take legal action to protect their rights to light (ancient lights). If a court decides that a new development can reduce light in an existing building to insufficient levels, it can grant damages or an injunction to prevent building. BRE’s experts can advise at all stages of the rights to light process, including initial guidance, calculation and valuation of the loss of light, negotiations and expert witness services.

We determine whether glazing, cladding or solar panels can reflect the sun and cause unwanted glare or dazzle. This includes measuring the reflective properties of proposed materials in our laboratory or in the field, and specialist calculations of disability glare from reflections to motorists, train drivers or aircraft pilots.

As well as carrying out daylight and sunlight analysis, we provide independent peer reviews and appraisal of daylight and sunlight reports to support local authorities or residents’ groups and assess whether they contain the appropriate methodology, analysis and conclusions.