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Standard Assessment Procedure SAP 2012

Standard Assessment Procedure SAP 2012 Page Description

The 2012 edition of the Standard Assessment Procedure, SAP 2012, can be downloaded from this page.

Standard Assessment Procedure 2012

The 2012 edition of the Standard Assessment Procedure, SAP 2012, can be downloaded from this page.

SAP 2012 was until recently used for building regulation compliance for new dwellings in England and in Wales (Part L) from 31 July 2014 but SAP 10.2 has now been adopted in these administration and must be used for all new assessments. SAP 2012 is still used in Scotland (Section 6) since 1 October 2015.

Where still applicable, SAP 2012 should be used in conjunction with BR443 2006 (for calculating U-values) rather than the newer BR443 2019, which is designed for use with SAP 10.2. The only exception to this is where the 2019 edition includes guidance for items not covered by the 2006 edition, in which case the approaches detailed in the 2019 edition may be used immediately. 

RdSAP 2012 should continue to be used to produce Energy Performance Certificates for existing dwellings in all parts of the UK until further notice. RdSAP 2012 v9.94 (third link below) remains the current version.

SAP methodology and approved software:

SAP 2012 document (October 2013, updated June 2014, with minor corrections December 2014)

RdSAP 2012 v9.93 (SUPERSEDED – used from 19th November 2017)

RdSAP 2012 v9.94 (CURRENT – used from 22nd September 2019)

RdSAP Conventions 11.4 (from 01 January 2024)

Current list of approved SAP 2012 software (15th June 2020)

Current list of approved RdSAP 2012 software (20th September 2019)

Current list of approved ECO software using RdSAP 2012 (20th August 2015)


Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. We recently installed new electric radiators in a property, having been told these were highly efficient. However, when it came to having the property assessed for the EPC a poor rating was given. Why is this?

A1. The EPC rating is based on the running costs for the dwelling calculated using SAP. Electricity is a relatively expensive fuel (around 3 to 4 times the price of mains gas), so even though all direct electric heaters are 100% efficient, the use of electric heating usually results in poor ratings. However, electric storage heaters can make use of cheaper electricity available at nighttime, so usually result in a better EPC rating than direct electric heaters.

Q2. When is the Product Characteristics Database updated?

A2. The PCDB is updated overnight on the last day of each month, so any new products added will be available in assessments from the start of the new month.

Q3. Can you tell me when a particular product will be added to the Product Characteristics Database?

A3. We can only discuss progress with PCDB applications with the manufacturer/applicant since this is potentially commercially sensitive information.

Q4. Why can’t I select an infra-red heater in SAP software?

A4. There is currently insufficient evidence of the performance of infra-red heaters to justify modelling them differently from other direct electric heaters, so they are treated as having the same performance.

We’ll add more FAQs to this page in future. If you have a question not answered above, please email

There are some further FAQs about EPCs on the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government’s EPC FAQs page.

Green Deal Occupancy Assessments (based on SAP 2012)

The document below is the technical specification for Green Deal Occupancy Assessments and Improvement Packages which applies from 8 December 2014.


Occupancy Assessment (version March 2014) (with minor corrections December 2014)

Download the current list of approved Green Deal OA software (list dated 19 November 2017)

Download the current list of approved Green Deal IP software (list dated 19 June 2015)


Other SAP technical documents

These papers relate mainly to the previous consultation on SAP 2009. They can be downloaded in PDF format.


Domestic hot water:

Auxillary energy use and internal gains

Occupancy and floor area:

SAP 2012 technical papers

These papers can be downloaded in PDF format.

CO2 emission factors:




Heat pumps:


Primary loss:




Scotland Building Regulations Section 7: Sustainability

The spreadsheet below is used for assessing the aspect of energy for water heating within the higher levels (silver and gold) of the Scottish building standard 7.1

Section 7 calculator for SAP 2012.xlsx (V1.0, 13/12/2017)